Care History: Why People with Developmental Disabilities Need Family Care
COP and CIP are not the LTC system. The Community
Options Program (COP) and the Community Integration Program (CIP) are among the most
effective and popular programs in Wisconsin. They provide supports in peoples own
homes and other community settings, responding to the overwhelming preference of people
with disabilities. And the average public cost for each person served in CIP is less than
the average cost of institutional care (nearly 50% less in CIP 1A and 10% less in CIP 1B.)
But these programs make up only a small part of the states long-term care system. So
why would we want to do something different?
COP/CIP not an entitlement. Institutional care is an entitlement for people who
qualify, but COP and CIP are not. An entitlement means that if a person qualifies, he or
she must be served.
In 1997, after 15 years of COP being in place, 39% of all public LTC
spending for people with developmental disabilities was for institutional services.
1997 Public Spending (in millions)
(39%) - institutional1
288 (61%) - non-institutional2
1 Includes nursing facility, ICF-MR, including State Centers
for the Developmentally Disabled
2Includes services for persons with
developmental disabilities under age 65 funded by COP, Medicaid home and community
waivers, Community Aids, county funds, and Medicaid fee-for-service funding for all
non-institutional services that will be in the Family Care benefit.
Too many people are in institutions. Wisconsin
citizens live in Intermediate Care Facilities for Mental Retardation (ICF-MR) at a rate
32% above the national average.
Waiting lists are long. COP waiting lists as of
December 1998 included 3,055 people with developmental disabilities (of a total
waiting list of 10,879). Young people who have been well supported through school
sometimes experience big gaps in service when they graduate because there is a long
waiting list for adult services. Sometimes people stay in institutions for much longer
than they want while they wait for CIP or COP funding.
Fragmented system. The current system is fragmented into many different funding
streams and programs. Each program has its own eligibility criteria, which sometimes have
more to do with where a person happens to have been living recently than with the level of
the persons needs. Each program has its own payment rates and limits, which also
dont have much to do with an actual persons needs. People have to fit into
whatever "slot" is open, or wait for a "slot" in the program that
would better meet their needs. Local care managers have to patch together funds from many
sources to help someone get the services they need. Sometimes, people fall through the
cracks between programs and cant access any of them.
How Family Care will make the system more sensible...
- Instead of separate institutional and COP programs, Family Care will be
flexible benefit for all long-term care services. It will include COP, but will also cover
intermediate care facilities, physical, speech and other therapies and many other services
- Once implemented within a county, each person who qualifies will be entitled to a
tailor-made package of services designed to meet his or her unique needs and preferences.
There will be no waiting list for people who are entitled.
- The entitlement to Family Care benefits will include everyone who is disabled enough to
qualify for institutional care, plus everyone who is less disabled but is eligible for
Medicaid, plus everyone who needs adult protective services. In addition, people receiving
services under Community Aids or county funded programs will be entitled to join Family
- Community care and institutional care will be on an equal footing. People will have real
choices about where and how they get needed care. Funding will follow the person
across service setting, time and county lines.
- Once the transition is made, the system will be much more simple, with fewer
cracks for people to fall through.
- Opportunities for autonomy and self-determination will be expanded in Family
April 23, 2014