AGE ADJUSTED RATE-A rate that is statistically modified to eliminate the effect of different age distributions in the different populations. In other words, the rate accounts for the possibility that there may be many people in one age group and few people in another age group. A crude rate does not make this adjustment.
Asthma-0-4, 5-14, 15-34, 35-64, 65+, All, Total
Heart Attacks-0-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
Lead-Children are grouped according to their age at time of testing. 0-<1, 1-<2, 2-<3, 3-<6 NPT, 3-<6 PT; NPT = Not Previously Tested, PT = Previously Tested
AGE SPECIFIC RATE-A rate limited to a particular age group. The numerator is the number of cases or events in that age group; the denominator is the total number of persons in that age group in the population of interest.
ASIAN (RACE)-Any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.
ASTHMA-A disease that affects the airways that carry oxygen in and out of the lungs. For people with asthma, the inside of the airways can become irritated and inflamed, and result in wheezing and coughing.
AVERAGE DAILY ADMISSION - The average number of people with a specified health issue (e.g., asthma episode or heart attack), visiting an emergency department or admitted to a hospital, each day of a given month or year.
BIRTH RATE-Number of live births per 1,000 county population. See fertility rate
CARBON MONOXIDE - Carbon monoxide, abbreviated CO, is a colorless, odorless gas that is formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It is a component of motor vehicle exhaust, which contributes about 56 percent of all CO emissions nationwide. Other non-road engines and vehicles (such as construction equipment and boats) contribute about 22 percent of all CO emissions nationwide.
CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC)-The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the primary Federal agency for conducting and supporting public health activities in the United States.
CHILDBEARING AGE-Women aged 15-44 years. See also reproductive age.
CONCENTRATION-A measure for the amount of something that is mixed with another material. For example, the amount of ozone that is mixed with other compounds in the air is an example of ozone concentration.
CONFIDENCE INTERVAL-A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable. The specified probability is called the confidence level, and the end points of the confidence interval are called the confidence limits.
CONTAMINANT- 1) "A substance that is either present in an environment where it does not belong or is present at levels that might cause harmful effects to humans or the environment." (source - http://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/abc/contaminant.htm) 2) Any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter that has an adverse effect on air, water, or soil.
CRUDE RATE-The number of cases or events divided the total number of people in the population of interest. This is often expressed as a number per unit population such as "per 10,000" or "per 100,000."
Last Revised: January 28, 2014
DEMOGRAPHIC GROUP-A subpopulation of persons defined by the characteristics they share. Common demographic groups include age, race, ethnicity, and gender which are defined at birth, but other groups are defined by medical, behavioral, and environmental risk factors such as diabetics, smokers, or persons who live in high crime areas.
EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISITS-Counts of people that have been admitted to emergency rooms. Data are reported for a total of 123 hospitals in Wisconsin. No data are reported by Veterans Administration hospitals and thus are not included in the data presented. The data are only for Wisconsin residents admitted to emergency rooms in Wisconsin. Wisconsin residents that are admitted to emergency rooms in other states are not included. Also, non-Wisconsin residents admitted to emergency rooms in Wisconsin are not included in the dataset used here.
ENVIRONMENT-1) The complex interaction of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (as climate, soil, and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival. 2) The aggregate of social and cultural conditions that influence the life of an individual or community.
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS-Summary measures that describe hazards in the physical and natural environment, population exposure to these hazards, the impact that these hazards have on population health, and the actions that are taken to prevent and intervene to reduce public health risk from these exposures.
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING-Environmental public health tracking is the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, and interpretation of data about: 1) environmental hazards, 2) exposure to environmental hazards, and 3) health effects potentially related to exposure to environmental hazards.
ETHNICITY-The concept of an ethnic group forms the connection between culture and society. The term designates the social group which sets itself apart from other groups on account of specific cultural traits, such as food and clothing, but also in fundamental options, such as a system of values and political beliefs.
FETAL DEATH-A fetal death or still birth is " a fetus, which after complete expulsion or extraction from the woman, does not breath or show evidence of life such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of the voluntary muscles." By Wisconsin statute, a stillbirth of at least 20 weeks gestation or 350 grams must be reported. (Note: A fetal death report is not used for induced terminations of pregnancy (induced abortions)). Some stillbirths are not reported in Wisconsin because they occurred before 20 weeks gestation, some occurred outside Wisconsin, and an unknown number that were not reported.
GEOCODE-The process of identifying the coordinates of a location in space. This process is used so data and information can be shown on a map. Typically data begin as addresses and are converted to coordinates using the geocoding process.
GROUNDWATER POPULATION-Estimate of the total number of people served by public water systems that use deep wells to extract water from underground. For water systems that use both surface and groundwater sources, the population is allocated according to the proportion of ground water source.
GROUND WATER POPULATION PERCENT-Estimate of the percent of people served by public water systems that use deep wells to extract water from underground. For water systems that use both surface and groundwater sources, the population is allocated according to the proportion of ground water source.
HEART ATTACK-A heart attack is an acute health event in which one of more regions of the heart muscle experience a severe or prolonged decrease in oxygen supply caused by a blocked blood flow to the heart muscle. A heart attack is also called a myocardial infarction (MI).
HISPANIC (ETHNICITY)-A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. Also know as Latino.
HYPOSPADIAS-A condition that is present at birth (congenital) in which the opening of the tube that carries urine and, in males, semen from the body (the urethra) is located below the normal location. This is caused by incomplete development of the urethra in utero between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation.
INCIDENCE RATE-1) The number of new cases of a given disease that develop in a population over a given period of time. The numerator (top number of a ratio) is the number of new cases of a given disease occurring during a given time period. The denominator (bottom number in a ratio) is the total population at risk for the given disease.
INPATIENT HOSPITALIZATIONS-Counts of people that have been admitted to hospitals. Data are reported for a total of 123 hospitals in Wisconsin. No data are reported by Veterans Administration hospitals and thus are not included in the data presented. The data are only for Wisconsin residents admitted to hospitals in Wisconsin. Wisconsin residents that are admitted to hospitals in other states are not included. Also, non-Wisconsin residents admitted to hospitals in Wisconsin are not included.
Last Revised: January 28, 2014
LAYERS (for mapping)-A thematic set of spatial data described and stored in a geographic database. Layers organize a database or map library by subject matter (e.g., counties, roads, and hospitals). Layers can be added or deleted from the visual presentation of a map.
LEAD-A naturally occurring bluish-gray metal found in small amounts in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our environment. Much of it comes from human activities including burning fossil fuels, mining, and manufacturing.
LEAD POISONING-The Wisconsin Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program defines lead poisoning in a child as a blood lead level of at least 10mcg/dL. For adults, it is defined as a blood lead level of at least 25mcg/dL. The results are measures in micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood.
LEGEND-The reference area on a map that lists and explains the colors, symbols, line patterns, shadings, and annotation used on the map. The legend often includes the scale, origin, orientation, and other map information.
LIFETIME CANCER RISK (% of Population with elevated risk) - The measure indicates the percent of people in the county that are exposed to levels of the carcinogen sufficient to increase their risk of contracting cancer above 1 per million of equally exposed people who are exposed continuously (24 hours/day) to the specific concentration over 70 years (an assumed lifetime). This risk is in addition to those cancer cases that would normally occur in an unexposed population of one million people. Note, this is different from an annual cancer risk which does not assume a lifetime exposure.
LIVE BIRTH-The complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which, after such expulsion or extraction, breathes, or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached. Heartbeats are to be distinguished from transient cardiac contractions; respirations are to be distinguished from fleeting respiratory efforts or gasps."
MAP-An abstract representation of the physical features of a portion of the earth's surface graphically displayed on a planar (2-dimentional) surface. Maps display signs, symbols, and spatial relationships among the features. They typically emphasize, generalize, and omit certain features from the display to meet design objectives (e.g., railroad features might be included in a transportation map but omitted from a highway map).
MEDICAID-The Wisconsin Medicaid program is a state/federal assistance program, administered by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, that provides medical insurance to individuals who meet specific eligibility criteria.
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION-A myocardial infarction (MI) is also called a heart attack. It is an acute health event in which one of more regions of the heart muscle experience a severe or prolonged decrease in oxygen supply caused by a blocked blood flow to the heart muscle.
NITROGEN OXIDE - Nitrogen oxides, abbreviated NOx, is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colorless and odorless. However, one common pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) along with particles in the air can often be seen as a reddish-brown layer over many urban areas.
OZONE - A gas, abbreviated O3, is composed of three oxygen atoms. It is created by a chemical reaction between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Ozone can be "bad" or "good" depending on its location in the atmosphere.
- "Bad" ozone occurs in the earth's lower atmosphere and is the primary constituent of smog. Sunlight and hot weather cause harmful concentrations of ozone in the air, causing high levels in the summer.
- "Good" ozone occurs naturally in the stratosphere, approximately 10 to 30 miles above the earth's surface, and forms a layer that protects life on earth from the sun's harmful rays.
PARTICULATE MATTER - "Particulate matter" is also known as particle pollution or PM. It is a mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets in the air. The size of particles is directly linked to their potential for causing health problems. Unless otherwise specified, the measure of particulate matter refers to particles both greater than and less than 10 micrometers in diameter. Particles that are 10 micrometers in diameter or smaller (PM10) generally pass through the throat and nose and enter the lungs. Once inhaled, these particles can affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects.
PARTICULATE MATTER 10 - "Particulate matter" is also known as particle pollution or PM. PM10 refers particularly to particles that are 10 micrometers in diameter or smaller (PM10). Particles of this size generally pass through the throat and nose and enter the lungs. Once inhaled, these particles can affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects. See also Particulate Matter.
PERCENT GROUND WATER POPULATION-Count of the total population estimated to be served by a ground water source (such as a well that extracts water from below the earth's surface) within a county divided by the total county population from the 2000 Census multiplied by 100.
PERCENT SINGLETON LOW BIRTH WEIGHT-Count of all live births <2500 grams that were born one at a time (not as twins, triplets etc.) divided by total birth count of births that were born one at a time (not as twins, triplets etc.) multiplied by 100.
PERCENT SINGLETON PREMATURE-Count of all live births born before 37 weeks gestation that were born one at a time (not as twins, triplets etc.) divided by total birth count of births that were born one at a time (not as twins, triplets etc.) and multiplied by 100.
PERCENT SURFACE WATER POPULATION-Count of the total population estimated to be served by a surface water source (such as a lake, river or stream) within a county divided by the total county population from the 2000 Census multiplied by 100.
PERCENTILE-One approach for grouping numbers. To create a percentile, the whole group of numbers is divided into 100 smaller groups with an equal number of items in each group. For example, if there are 100 numbers, each group has only 1 number in it. Another example is if there are 300 numbers, each group as 3 numbers in it. A particular percentile, for example the 5th percentile, means 5% of the numbers are below it and the remaining 95% of the numbers are above it.
POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs)-A group of chemicals created after the burning or combustion of coal, oil, gas or garbage when the burning is not complete. PAHs can be numerous individual chemicals that are considered to be PAH when found in groups of two or more.
POPULATION SERVED-A drinking water quality measure that estimates the total number of people that get water from a public water supply within a particular county. This number is a sum of all population served estimates from individual public water supplies that have their system locations identified within a particular county.
PERCENT POISONING PREVALENCE-The number of children under six poisoned by lead (blood lead level over 10mcg/dL) in a given period of time (Total Children Poisoned) divided by the number of children under six tested for lead poisoning during the same given period of time (Total Children Tested).
PUBLIC WATER USE INDEX (%)-Population served by public water systems divided by county population (Census 2000 estimate) multiplied by 100. This measure is available only by county. It estimates the percentage of the county population served by public water systems. Note, that some water systems (for example, those in Milwaukee county) serve populations of neighboring counties. This is therefore a very rough estimate.
Last Revised: January 28, 2014
RACE CATEGORY-Subpopulations of people loosely based on biological and anthropological concepts, and developed in response to needs for collecting standardized data to be used by federal agencies for record keeping, collection and presentation of data (e.g., federal surveys, the decennial census and monitoring various civil rights laws).
REACTIVE ORGANIC GAS - Reactive Organic Gases are also referred to as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). They are precursors to the formation of ozone (O3). High levels of ozone can be related to negative health effects in humans.
RELATIVE STANDARD ERROR (RSE) OF A RATE-The estimated standard deviation of a rate based on its numerator and denominator together. RSE is commonly calculated as part of the equation to determine the confidence interval around a rate, however, it can be used alone as a measure of statistical stability where event numbers are low and can fluctuate greatly.
REPRODUCTIVE AGE-Traditionally defined as 15 to 44 years of age. See also childbearing age.
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH-Refers to diseases, disorders and conditions that affect the functioning of the male and female reproductive systems during all stages of life, including adolescence, pregnancy, childbirth, and fertility.
REPRODUCTIVE OUTCOMES-Include disorders that occur as a result of poor reproductive health including birth defects, developmental disorders, fetal growth restriction, low birthweight, preterm birth, reduced fertility/infertility, impotence, and menstrual disorders.
RISK-Likelihood or possibility of injury, disease, or death. Risk is often presented as "1 in a million." A risk level of 1 in a million indicates that one person out of one million people will be injured, develop the specific disease or die.
SINGLETON BIRTH-Pregnancy resulting in the birth of one child (e.g., not twins or triplets).
SULFUR DIOXIDE - Sulfur dioxide, abbreviated SO2, belongs to the family of sulfur oxide gases (SOx). SOx gases are formed when fuel containing sulfur, such as coal and oil, is burned, and when gasoline is extracted from oil, or metals are extracted from ore. SO2 dissolves in water vapor to form acid, and interacts with other gases and particles in the air to form sulfates and other products that can be related to health problems in humans.
SURFACE WATER POPULATION-Estimate of the population served by public water systems that have surface water sources such as lakes, rivers, and streams that are not underground. For water systems that use both surface and ground water sources, the population is allocated according to the proportion of surface water source as designated by the public water system.
SURFACE WATER POPULATION PERCENT-Estimate of the percent of the population served by public water systems that have surface water sources such as lakes, rivers, and streams that are not underground. For water systems that use both surface and ground water sources, the population is allocated according to the proportion of surface water source as designated by the public water system.
TOTAL CHILDREN TESTED FOR LEAD POISONING-Number of children who had a capillary or venous blood lead test. For the purposes of the data presented here, only one test per child per year is used. Results from the first test that is >= 10 mcg/dL is used if there is at least one test >= 10 mcg/dL during the year. Otherwise the first test during the year is used. If a capillary test was followed by a venous test within 3 months, the venous test is used.
WOMEN, INFANTS, AND CHILDREN (WIC) PROGRAM-A program to promote and maintain the health and well-being of nutritionally at-risk pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum women, infants, and children. WIC provides supplemental nutritious foods, nutrition, and breastfeeding information, and referral to other health and nutrition services.
ZIP (zone improvement plan) CODES-A 5-digit code that identifies a specific geographic area for mail delivery. ZIP Codes can represent an area within a state, an area that crosses state boundaries (unusual condition), or a single building or company that has very high mail volume.
Last Revised: January 28, 2014
The following resources were referenced in the creation of this glossary:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Reproductive Health: Glossary. http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/EpiGlossary/glossary.htm
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Interactive Atlas of Reproductive Health: Glossary.
- National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/conditions/repro-health/index.cfm
- US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations, and Acronyms. http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/aterms.html
- US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Region 5 Superfund Glossary. http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/reforms/glossary.htm
Last Revised: January 28, 2014