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  • What is sex ratio at birth?
    • The sex ratio at birth is the ratio of male to female births. This ratio of total males/total females born in a geographic area (e.g., state, county, zip code, census tract, block group) at a certain time (one birth year or multiple years) is referred to as the Sex Ratio (SR).

      The expected sex ratio at birth (male to female) is 1.05. The sex ratio at birth is calculated as the number of male births divided by female births times 1,000, for example, the sex ratio at birth of 1.05 is reported as 1,050 male births per 1,000 female births. This ratio has been found to be significant in evolution to ensure that the population has the appropriate number of males and females of reproductive age to keep the population sustained.

  • What is the relationship between sex ratio at birth and the environment?
    • Although the mechanism which determines the sex of the infant is not completely understood, some have suggested that environmental hazards can affect how many males are born due to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals or contaminants impacting gene-expression found in the environment.

      Some examples of environmental exposures that affect the sex determination of the infant are:

      * Endocrine disrupters,
      * Increase in parental tobacco smoking

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Last Revised: January 28, 2014

Data

Data Query

Singleton Sex Ratio

Access the sex ratio data in the WI EPHT online database.

The WI EPHT online database has data about other reproductive outcomes. Review the Data Details below to learn about interpreting the data.

Data Details

What is the data source?

The website provides data from the statistical resident birth and death files, maintained by the Wisconsin Vital Statistics Records Office, Wisconsin Department of Health Services. This office also provides reproductive outcomes data on the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health.

How does WI EPHT measure reproductive outcomes?

The WI EPHT website includes the following measures:

  • Annual percent of singleton premature babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual count of singleton premature babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual percent of singleton very premature babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual count of singleton very premature babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual percent of low birth weight babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual percent of singleton low birth weight babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual birth rate per 1,000 babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual infant mortality rate per 1,000 babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual perinatal mortality rate per 1,000 babies by state
    • Annual perinatal mortality counts by state
    • Multi-year neonatal mortality rate per 1,000 babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Multi-year neonatal mortality count of babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual neonatal mortality rate per 1,000 babies by state
    • Annual neonatal mortality count of babies by state
    • Multi-year post-neonatal mortality rate per 1,000 babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Multi-year post-neonatal mortality count of babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual post-neonatal mortality rate per 1,000 babies by state
    • Annual post-neonatal mortality count of babies by state
    • Annual singleton birth count by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual singleton birth rate per 1,000 babies by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual total birth count by state by gender by age by race
    • Annual total fertility rate by state
    • Annual singleton sex ratio by state

    • Annual percent of low birth weight babies by county
    • Annual percent of singleton low birth weight babies by county
    • Annual percent of singleton premature babies by county
    • Annual count of singleton premature babies by county
    • Annual percent of singleton very premature babies by county
    • Annual count of singleton very premature babies by county
    • Annual birth rate per 1,000 babies by county
    • Annual singleton birth count by county
    • Annual singleton birth rate per 1,000 babies by county
    • Annual total birth count by county
    • Annual total fertility rate by county
    • Multiple years of infant mortality rate per 1,000 babie by county
    • Multiple years of infant mortality count by county
    • Multiple years of perinatal mortality rate per 1,000 babies by county
    • Multiple years of perinatal mortality counts by county
    • Multiple years of neonatal mortality rate per 1,000 babies by county
    • Multiple years of neonatal mortality counts by county
    • Multiple years of post-neonatal mortality rate per 1,000 babies by county
    • Multiple years of post-neonatal mortality counts by county
    • Annual singleton sex ratio by county
  • What are some considerations for interpreting the data?

    While significant effort is made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the data, there are limitations that are listed below:

    • There are cooperative exchange procedures in place to help ensure data are included for Wisconsin residents born in other states, but it is possible not all other states have provided complete information at the time this report was created. The numbers are likely quite small, and thus the incompleteness probably has limited impact on the measures provided from the EPHT program.
    • The measures are based on responses recorded on the birth certificate. There is not separate reporting specific to these reproductive outcomes.

    There are many factors that can contribute to a disease and should be considered when interpreting the data. Some of these include:

    • Demographics, e.g., race, gender, age
    • Socioeconomic Status, e.g., income level, education
    • Geographic, e.g., urban vs. rural
    • Changes in the medical field, e.g., diagnosis patterns, reporting requirements
    • Individual behavior, e.g., diet, smoking