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Study Guides 
Lead Inspector

There are 75-items on the lead (Pb) inspector exam.  The exam covers the general topic areas (a through h) below. The specific knowledge areas listed under each topic are guides for your study activities in each topic. The course manual from your initial lead (Pb) inspector course, and materials from any refresher courses you have taken should provide most of the information needed to help you study for the exam.  In addition, the exam includes questions about applicable OSHA lead in construction regulations.  Exam times and locations vary.

(a) The role and responsibilities of a lead inspector:

  • Identify reasons for inspection request
  • State roles and responsibilities of the Inspector
  • Explain the difference between an inspection and risk assessment
  • Recognize basic building and construction terminology
  • Define general contract terms and requirements
  • Describe types of inspector/company insurance
  • Describe liability issues involved in lead inspections
  • List factors in scheduling an inspection

(b) Background information on lead and its adverse health effects:

  • Explain adult health effects from lead exposure
  • Explain childhood health effects from lead exposure
  • List factors which affect absorption of lead
  • List places where lead can be found inside the home besides lead-based paint
  • List places where lead can be found outside the home besides lead-based paint
  • List sources of lead in drinking water
  • Discuss history and uses of lead
  • Discuss basic concepts and information relevant to lead

(c) Background information on Federal, State & Local regulations and guidance that pertains to lead-based paint and lead-based paint activities:

  • State the goals of HUD guidelines applicable to lead inspection
  • State the importance of State and local requirements for a lead inspection
  • Explain EPA and HUD notification and disclosure regulations
  • List EPA recommended steps for reducing lead in drinking water
  • Summarize OSHA regulations applicable to lead
  • Discuss respirators that Inspectors may use (OSHA
  • Respiratory protection Std)
  • Discuss appropriate personal protective equipment
  • that inspectors may use/OSHA safety regulations
  • (other than respirators)
  • Explain RCRA regulations applicable to lead
  • Discuss Wisconsin HFS 163 certification requirements
  • Describe Wisconsin HFS 163 definition of Abatement
  • Describe Wisconsin HFS 163 definition of lead-based paint or LBP
  • Explain Wisconsin HFS 163 lead abatement or other lead hazard reduction activities notification requirements
  • Indicate which Wisconsin regulation covers lead (Pb) training and certification
  • Describe Wisconsin HFS 163 definition of interim control activity
  • Identify the State agency that regulates solid waste storage, transportation and disposal
  • Identify which certified personnel Wisconsin HFS 163 authorizes to perform clearance
  • Identify the certified personnel Wisconsin HFS 163 requires to be at the lead (Pb) abatement site at all times
  • Explain who owns the certification card
  • Identify the certified personnel who may conduct lead inspections, write inspection reports and conduct clearance following a lead hazard reduction activity
  • Identify the certified personnel who may conduct lead inspections, write inspection reports, conduct clearance, conduct lead hazard screens and provide options to reduce specific lead hazards
  • Identify the certified personnel who may oversee or perform on-site lead abatement and HUD LBP grant-funded lead hazard reduction activities, develop occupant protection plans and write abatement reports

(d) Lead-based paint inspection methods:

  • Outline current information needed about property: building age, size, use, residents, ownership
  • Outline historical information needed about property: painting; additions, renovations, remodeling, prior sampling and inspection results
  • List additional information to request: blueprints, number of units, designated common areas, addresses of units
  • Read blueprints
  • Define common construction history among buildings
  • Calculate the number of units to inspect using HUD tables
  • Select random units for inspection using HUD sampling protocols - general principles
  • Select random units for inspection using HUD sampling protocols - random numbers
  • Prepare an inventory of all painted surfaces
  • Select paint sample locations in a single-family dwelling
  • Select paint sample locations in multi-family dwellings
  • Determine the number of components to test in multi-family housing
  • Describe when to assess paint condition

(e) Sampling and measurement techniques:

  • Explain sampling techniques: XRF versus paint chip
  • Discuss XRF analyzer shipping and transportation considerations
  • Explain how an XRF analyzer works
  • Differentiate between direct reading and spectrum XRFanalyzers
  • Discuss safety issues concerning XRF use: Inspector safety
  • Explain how to care for an XRF analyzer battery pack
  • Explain how the age of XRF analyzer source affects its usage
  • Check the calibration of an XRF analyzer
  • List all equipment needed for sampling
  • Explain the use of a dosimeter
  • Discuss safety issues concerning XRF use: Occupant safety
  • Describe how to take XRF readings
  • List information found on a performance characteristics sheet (PCS)
  • Use performance characteristics sheet (PCS)
  • Determine if an XRF analyzer is properly calibrated
  • Explain when an XRF substrate correction is required
  • Perform substrate corrections
  • Interpret XRF readings (positive)
  • Interpret XRF readings (inconclusive)
  • Interpret XRF readings (negative)
  • Discuss why values for POS, NEG, and INCONCLUSIVE vary among XRF analyzers
  • Download data from an XRF
  • Use HUD decision guidelines for paint chip sampling in single-family dwellings
  • Use HUD decision guidelines for paint chip sampling in multi-family dwellings
  • Describe the collection of paint chip samples to measure lead in parts per million (PPM)
  • Describe the collection of paint chip samples to measure lead in milligrams per square centimeter (mg/cm2)
  • Discuss the use of laboratory forms
  • Discuss how to ship paint chip samples to a laboratory
  • List proper analyses for lead in paint chips
  • Interpret laboratory results
  • Describe spot-test kits for lead determination work
  • Describe soil sampling for inspection purposes
  • Describe dust sampling for inspection purposes
  • Describe water sampling for inspection purposes
  • Calculate surface area wiped from dimensions wiped
  • Calculate the wipe sample results in ug/ft2 (complex)
  • Calculate the wipe sample results in ug/ft2 (simple)
  • Explain when and if dust wipe or soil samples should be composited

(f) Clearance standards and testing for abatement projects:

  • Describe what to look for during visual inspection of abatement projects
  • Describe what to look for during visual inspection of soil/interim control projects
  • Describe when to conduct clearance sampling
  • Perform a final visual inspection of the abatement site
  • Explain why pre-abatement wipe and soil samples are collected
  • Explain why dust samples are collected for clearance
  • Select the location of wipe samples for clearance purposes
  • State wipe sampling clearance standards
  • Select the number of wipe samples for clearance purposes
  • Perform wipe sampling for clearance purposes
  • Describe what to do when a clearance wipe test fails
  • Select the number of soil samples for clearance purposes
  • Select the location of soil samples for clearance purposes
  • Perform soil sampling for clearance purposes
  • State the levels of concern for clearance soil samples

(g) Preparation of the lead inspection report:

  • List elements of good field documentation: sketches
  • List elements of good field documentation: sample identification
  • List elements of an inspection report
  • Clearly indicate lead versus nonleaded surfaces in report
  • Recommend lead (Pb) hazard reduction options to the property owner (e.g., risk assessment)

(h) Record keeping responsibilities:

  • List all field inspection forms
  • List information asked for on HUD inspection forms (single-family dwellings)
  • Identify information asked for on HUD inspection forms (multi-family dwellings)
  • Describe the use of chain of custody forms
  • Describe labeling and numbering of paint chip samples
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Last Revised: July 24, 2013