In 2020, a taxonomy change was adopted to use “Enterobacterales” as the name of a new scientific order. “Enterobacteriaceae” are now a family within the “Enterobacterales” order, along with Erwiniaceae, Pectobacteriaceae, Yersiniaceae, Hafniaceae, Morganellaceae, and Budvicaceae.
Enterobacterales is an order of different types of bacteria commonly found in the human gut. There are several species of bacteria within the Enterobacterales order, which include, but are not limited to, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Citrobacter and Yersinia. Many species of Enterobacterales are necessary for digestion and are usually harmless when contained in the gut.
Species of the Enterobacterales order may develop resistance to a group of antibiotics called carbapenems. Carbapenems are often used as the last line of treatment when other antibiotics are not effective in treating Enterobacterales infections, and carbapenem resistance can make these infections very difficult to treat.
- Antibiotic resistance
- Health Care Associated Infections (HAI) prevention
- CRE fact sheet for health care settings, P-03232a
- Wisconsin CRE surveillance data, P-00578
- Antibiotic Resistance Patient Safety Atlas (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Information for Providers
This is a Wisconsin disease surveillance category II disease:
- CRE as a Reportable Condition in Wisconsin, Memo April 2022 (PDF)
This memo provides updated reporting requirements for CRE, including that as of April 25, 2022, carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CP-CRE) is now a category II (rather than cateogry I) communicable disease in Wisconsin. In addition, the memo notes that as of May 1, 2022, infection preventionists in acute and long-term care settings are no longer required to report CRE into the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Since cases of confirmed CP-CRE are currently reported in the Wisconsin Electronic Disease Surveillance System (WEDSS), NHSN reporting is no longer needed to enable statewide surveillance for this organism
- More information about communicable disease reporting can be found on the Department of Health Services disease reporting webpage.
Wisconsin case reporting and public health follow-up guidelines
- Communicable Disease Case Reporting and Investigation Protocol: Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms (EpiNet), P-02187 (PDF)